PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1309-0682

Orjinal Araştırma Makalesi | Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi 2020, Cil. 14(31) 592-606

The Role of Perceived Social Support and Gratitude in Prediction of Student Engagement among High School Students

Asuman Yüksel

ss. 592 - 606   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/mjer.2020.234.28   |  Makale No: MANU-1902-28-0005.R2

Yayın tarihi: Mart 18, 2020  |   Okunma Sayısı: 19  |  İndirilme Sayısı: 104


Özet

This study aims to examine the prediction power of gratitude and perceived social support for student engagement in high school students. The study was conducted on a total of 303 high school students. The data of the study were collected through the Gratitude Scale, Student Engagement Scale and Perceived Social Support Scale. Data analysis was conducted using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression Analysis. According to the results of this study, gratitude and perceived social support positively predict student engagement.According to the multiple regression analysis,thegratitude and perceived social support scores of the students significantly predicted their engagement to school and explained 37% of their school engagement.Moreover, perceived social support explained 57% of student engagement, while gratitude explained 12%.In the light of these findings, psychological counselors can do individual and group work to increase gratitude. Psychological counselors can organize training and seminars for teachers and families so that teachers and families can become aware of the social support their students perceive and develop supportive attitudes and behaviors towards students.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Student engagement, gratitude, perceived social support


Bu makaleye nasıl atıf yapılır?

APA 6th edition
Yuksel, A. (2020). The Role of Perceived Social Support and Gratitude in Prediction of Student Engagement among High School Students . Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 14(31), 592-606. doi: 10.29329/mjer.2020.234.28

Harvard
Yuksel, A. (2020). The Role of Perceived Social Support and Gratitude in Prediction of Student Engagement among High School Students . Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 14(31), pp. 592-606.

Chicago 16th edition
Yuksel, Asuman (2020). "The Role of Perceived Social Support and Gratitude in Prediction of Student Engagement among High School Students ". Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi 14 (31):592-606. doi:10.29329/mjer.2020.234.28.

Kaynakça
  1. Algoe, S. B., Haidt, J., and Gable, S. L. (2008). Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships in everyday life. Emotion, 8(2), 425–429.  [Google Scholar]
  2. Alliman-Brissett, A., and Turner, S. (2010). Racism, parent support, and math-based career interests, efficacy, and outcome expectations among African American adolescents. The Journal of Black Psychology, 36(2), 197-225. [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson, A. R., Christenson, S. L., Sinclair, M. F., and Lehr,C. A. (2004). Check and connect: The importance of relationships for promoting engagement with school. Journal of School Psychology, 42(2), 95-113. [Google Scholar]
  4. Appleton, J., Christenson, S., and Furlong, M. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369–386. [Google Scholar]
  5. Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., Kim, D., and Reschly, A. L. (2006). Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the student engagement instrument. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 427 – 445. [Google Scholar]
  6. Bono, G., andFroh, J. (2009). Gratitude in school: Benefits to students and schools. In R. Gilman, E. Huebner and M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 77-88). New York: Routledge [Google Scholar]
  7. Brewster, A. B., and Bowen, G. L. (2004). Teacher support and the school engagement of Latino middle and high school students at risk of school failure. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21(1), 47-67. [Google Scholar]
  8. Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D., and Klein, S. P. (2006). Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages. Research in Higher Education, 47(1), 1-32. [Google Scholar]
  9. Christenson, S. L., Reschly, A. L., Appleton, J. J., Berman-Young, S., Spangers, D., and Varro, P. (2008). Best practices in fostering student engagement. In A. Thomas, and J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 1099-1120). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists. [Google Scholar]
  10. Christenson, S. L., and Anderson, A. R. (2002). Commentary: The centrality of the learning context for students’ academic enabler skills. School Psychology Review, 31(3), 378 – 393. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. PsychosomaticMedicine, 38(5), 300-314. [Google Scholar]
  12. Cohen, S., and Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-357. [Google Scholar]
  13. DeSantis King, A. L., Huebner, S., Suldo, S. M., and Valois, R. F. (2006). An ecological view of school satisfaction in adolescence: Linkages between social support and behavior problems. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1(3-4), 279–295. [Google Scholar]
  14. Dunn, J. R., and Schweitzer, M.E. (2005). Feeling and believing: The influence of emotion on trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(5), 736-748. [Google Scholar]
  15. Eccles, J. S., and Midgley, C. (1989). Stage-environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents. In C. Ames and R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education: Vol. 3. Goals and cognitions (pp. 13– 44). New York: Academic Press. [Google Scholar]
  16. Ekşioğlu, S., Sürücü, M. ve Arastaman, G. (2009). Lise öğrencilerinin okula bağlılıklarını yordayan değişkenlerin incelenmesi. XVIII. Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı, 1-3 Ekim, İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi. . [Google Scholar]
  17. Emmons, R.A. (2004). Gratitude. In M. E. P. Seligman and C. Peterson (Eds.), The VIA taxonomy of human strengths and virtues (pp. 553–568). New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  18. Emmons, R. A., and Crumpler, C. A. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 56–69. [Google Scholar]
  19. Emmons, R. A., McCullough, M. E. and Tsang, J. (2007). The assessment of gratitude. In J.Lopez and C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp.327-341), Washington DC: APA. [Google Scholar]
  20. Emmons, R. A. and McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An empirical investigation of gratitude and subjective wellbeing in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377–389. [Google Scholar]
  21. Finn, J. D. and Zimmer,K. S. (2012). Student engagement: What is it? Why does it matter? In  S.L.Christenson, A. L. Reschly, and C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (pp.97-133). New York: Springer. [Google Scholar]
  22. Fraenkel, J. R. ;Wallen, N. E. and Hyun, H. H. (2012) How to design and evaluate research in education. Eight Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill [Google Scholar]
  23. Fredericks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C. and Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109. [Google Scholar]
  24. Fredericks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., Friedel, J. and Paris, A. (2005). School engagement. In K. A. Moore and L. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish?: Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development(pp.305-321). New York: Kluwer Academic. [Google Scholar]
  25. Froh, J. J., and Bono, G. (2008). The gratitude of youth. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Positive psychology: Exploring the best in people Vol. 2 (pp. 55–78). Westport, CT: Greenwood. [Google Scholar]
  26. Froh, J. J., Sefick, W. J. and Emmons, R. A. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46(2), 213–233. [Google Scholar]
  27. Froh, J. J., Kashdan, T. B., Ozimkowski, K. M. and Miller, N. (2009). Who benefits the most from a gratitude intervention in children and adolescents? Examining positive affect as a moderator. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(5), 408–422. [Google Scholar]
  28. Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C. andKashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 633-650. [Google Scholar]
  29. Froh, J. J., Bono, G. and Emmons, R. A. (2010). Being grateful is beyond good manners: Gratitude and motivation to contribute to society among early adolescents. Motivation &Emotion, 34(2), 144-157. [Google Scholar]
  30. Froh, J. J., Kashdan, T. B., Yurkewicz, C., Fan, J., Allen, J. and Glowacki, J. (2010). The benefits of passion and absorption in activities: Engaged living in adolescents and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(4), 311–332 [Google Scholar]
  31. Froh, J. J., Emmons, R. A., Card, N. A., Bono, G. and Wilson, J. A. (2011). Gratitude and the reduced costs of materialism in adolescents. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(2), 289-302. [Google Scholar]
  32. Froh, J. J., Bono G., Fan, J., Emmons, R.A., Henderson, K., Harris, C., et.al. (2014). Nice thinking! An educational intervention that teaches children how to think gratefully. School Psychology Review, 43(2), 132-152. [Google Scholar]
  33. Furlong, M. J., Sharkey, J. D., Quirk, M. and Dowdy, E. (2011). Exploring the protective and promotive effects of school connectedness on the relation between psychological health risk and problem behaviors/experiences. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 1(1), 18-34. [Google Scholar]
  34. Furlong, M., Froh, J. J., Muller, M. and Gonzalez, V. (2014). The role of gratitude in fostering school bonding. In D. Shernoff and J. Bempechat (Eds.), Engaging youth in schools: Empirically-based models to guide future innovations. Volume 113 (pp. 58-79). New York: Teachers College Record. [Google Scholar]
  35. Furrer, C. and Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148–162 [Google Scholar]
  36. Garcia-Reid, P., Reid, R. and Peterson, N. A. (2005). School engagement among Latino youth in an urban middle school context: Valuing the role of social support. Education and Urban Society, 37(3), 257–275. [Google Scholar]
  37. Henry, K. L and Thornberry, T. P. (2010). Truancy and escalation of substance use during adolescence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(1), 115–124. [Google Scholar]
  38. Hill, P. L andAllemand, M. (2011). Gratitude, forgivingness, and well-being in adulthood: Tests of moderation and incremental prediction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(5), 397-407. [Google Scholar]
  39. Howell, K. (2012). Gratitude in education: A radical view. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. [Google Scholar]
  40. Howells, K. (2014). An exploration of the role of gratitude in enhancing teacher-student relationships. Teaching and Teacher Education, 42, 58-67. [Google Scholar]
  41. Kashdan, T. B., Uswatte, G. and Julian, T. (2009). Gratitude and hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in Vietnam War veterans. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(2), 177-199. [Google Scholar]
  42. Kef, S. (1997). The personal networks and social supports of blind and visually impaired adolescents. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 91(3), 236-244. [Google Scholar]
  43. Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S. and Valois, R. F. (2011). Life satisfaction and student engagement in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3), 249-262. [Google Scholar]
  44. Ma, L., Tunney, R .J. and Ferguson, E. (2017). Does gratitude enhance prosociality?: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 143(6), 601-635.  [Google Scholar]
  45. Mahatmya, D., Lohman B. J., Matjasko J. L. and Farb, A. F. (2012). Engagement across developmental periods. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly and C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (pp.45-65). New York:Springer. [Google Scholar]
  46. McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A. and Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112-127. [Google Scholar]
  47. McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A. and Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 249-266. [Google Scholar]
  48. Mengi, S. (2011). Ortaöğretim 10. ve 11.sınıf öğrencilerinin sosyal destek ve özyeterlik düzeylerinin okula bağlılıkları ile ilişkisi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Sakarya Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Sakarya. [Google Scholar]
  49. Newmann, F. (1992). Higher-order thinking and prospects for classroom thoughtfulness. In F. Newmann (Ed.), Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (pp. 11-39). New York: Teachers College Press. [Google Scholar]
  50. Overwalle, F. V., Mervielde, I. and De Schuyter, J. (1995). Structural modeling of the relationships between attributional dimensions, emotions, and performance of college freshmen. Cognition and Emotion, 9(1), 59–85. [Google Scholar]
  51. Önen, E. (2014). Öğrencinin okula bağlılığı ölçeği: Türk ortaokul ve lise öğrencileri için uyarlama çalışması. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 5(42), 221-234. [Google Scholar]
  52. Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M. and Kaplan, A. (2007). Early adolescents’ perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 83–98. [Google Scholar]
  53. Plybon, L. E., Edwards, L., Butler, D., Belgrave, F. Z. and Allison, K. W. (2003). Examining the link between neighborhood cohesion and school outcomes: The role of support coping among African American adolescent girls. Journal of Black Psychology, 29(4), 393-407. [Google Scholar]
  54. Reschly, A. L., Huebner, E. S., Appleton, J. J. andAntaramian, S. (2008). Engagement as flourishing: The contribution of positive emotions and coping to adolescents’ engagement at school and with learning. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 419–431. [Google Scholar]
  55. Rockhill, C. M., Stoep, A. V., McCauley, E. and Katon, W. J. (2009). Social competence and social support as mediators between comorbid depressive and conduct problems and functional outcomes in middle school children. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 535-553. [Google Scholar]
  56. Rosenfeld, L. B., Richman, J. M. and Bowen, G. L. (2000). Social support networks and school outcomes: The centrality of the teacher. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(3), 205–226. [Google Scholar]
  57. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K. and Demaray, M. K. (2008). Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 496–514. [Google Scholar]
  58. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K. and Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(1), 47–61. [Google Scholar]
  59. Sarason, I. G. andSarason, B. R. (1985). Social support-Insights from assessment and experimentation. In I. Sarasonand B. R. Sarason (Eds.), Socialsupport: Theory, research and applications (pp. 39-50). Boston: MartinusNijhoff. [Google Scholar]
  60. Sipahi, B., Yurtkoru, E. S., ve Çinko, M. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde SPSS’le veri analizi. İstanbul: Beta  [Google Scholar]
  61. Skues, J. L., Cunningham, E. G. and Pokharel, T. (2005). The influence of bullying behaviours on sense of school connectedness, motivation and self-esteem. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 15(1), 17-26. [Google Scholar]
  62.  Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Google Scholar]
  63. Torsheim, T., Aaroe, L. E. andWold, B. (2003). School-related stress, social support, and distress: Prospective analysis of reciprocal and multilevel relationships. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 44(2), 153–159. [Google Scholar]
  64. Walker, C. and Greene, B (2009). The relations between student motivational beliefs and cognitive engagement in high school. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(6), 463-471 [Google Scholar]
  65. Wang, M. T. and Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83(3), 877-895. [Google Scholar]
  66. Watkins, P. C., Woodward, K., Stone, T. and Kolts, R. D. (2003). Gratitude and happiness: The development of a measure of gratitude and its relationship with subjective well-being. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(5), 431–452. [Google Scholar]
  67. Wood, A. M., Joseph, S. and Linley, P. A. (2007). Coping style as a psychological resource of grateful people. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(9), 1076-1093. [Google Scholar]
  68. Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Gillett, R., Linley, P. A. and Joseph, S. (2008). The role of gratitude in the development of social support, stress, and depression: Two longitudinal studies. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(4), 854 – 871. [Google Scholar]
  69. Woolley, M.E. and Bowen, G.L. (2007). In the context of risk: Supportive adults and the school engagement of middle school students. Family Relations, 56(1), 92-104. [Google Scholar]
  70. Woolley, M., Kol, K. and Bowen, G. (2009). The social context of school success for Latino middle school students: Direct and indirect influences of teachers, family, and friends. Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(1), 43-70. [Google Scholar]
  71. Yıldırım, İ. (1997). Algılanan sosyal destek ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi güvenirliği v egeçerliği. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 13, 81-88. [Google Scholar]
  72. Yıldırım, İ. (1998). Akademik başarı düzeyleri farklı olan lise öğrencilerinin sosyal destek düzeyleri. Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 2(9), 33-38. [Google Scholar]
  73. Yıldırım, İ. (2004). Algılanan sosyal destek ölçeğinin revizyonu. Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 17, 221-236. [Google Scholar]
  74. Yıldırım, İ. (2006). Akademik başarının yordayıcısı olarak gündelik sıkıntılar ve sosyal destek. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 30, 258-267. [Google Scholar]
  75. Yıldırım, İ. (2007). Depression, test anxiety and social support among Turkish students preparing for the university entrance examination. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 29, 171-184. [Google Scholar]
  76. Yüksel, A. and Oğuz Duran N. (2012). Turkish adaptation of Gratitude Questionnaire. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 46, 199-216.  [Google Scholar]