PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1309-0682

Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi 2016, Cil. 10(19) 39-52

Academic Procrastination: The Role of Metacognitive Awareness and Educational Stress


ss. 39 - 52   |  Makale No: mjer.2016.003

Yayın tarihi: Eylül 20, 2016  |   Okunma Sayısı: 242  |  İndirilme Sayısı: 212


The aim of this study was investigate the academic procrastination in terms of metacognitive awareness and educational stress. The 273 high school students were attended the current study that was based on a correlation model. Academic Procrastination Scale, Metacognitive Awareness Scale and Educational Stress Scale were used in this study. Data were analyzed by using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. Results were revealed significant correlations among academic procrastination, metacognitive awareness and educational stress. Academic procrastination correlated negatively with metacognitive awareness; however it correlated positively with educational stress. Results taken from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that metacognitive awareness and educational stress accounted for 20% of total academic procrastination variance. Metacognitive awareness and educational stress made a significant and distinctive contribution to the model. These findings were discussed about the relevant literature and new directions were suggested for further studies.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Academic Procrastination, Metacognitive Awareness, Educational Stress, Correlational Model

Bu makaleye nasıl atıf yapılır?

APA 6th edition
CIKRIKCI, O. (2016). Academic Procrastination: The Role of Metacognitive Awareness and Educational Stress. Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 10(19), 39-52.

CIKRIKCI, O. (2016). Academic Procrastination: The Role of Metacognitive Awareness and Educational Stress. Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 10(19), pp. 39-52.

Chicago 16th edition
CIKRIKCI, Ozkan (2016). "Academic Procrastination: The Role of Metacognitive Awareness and Educational Stress". Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi 10 (19):39-52.

  • Agolla, J. E. (2009). Occupational stress among poliçe officers: The case of Botswana Police Service. Research Journal of Business Management, 3(1), 25-35. doi: 10.3923/rjbm.2009.25.35.
  • Agolla, J. E., & Ongori, H. (2009). An assessment of academic stress among undergraduate students: The case of University of Botswana. Educational Research and Review, 4(2), 63-70.
  • Akgün, S., & Ciarrochi, J. (2003). Learned resourcefulness moderates the relationship between academic stress and academic performance. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 23(3), 287-294. doi: 10.1080/0144341032000060129.
  • Akın, A., Abaci, R., & Çetin, B. (2007). The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the metacognitive awareness inventory. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 7(2), 671-678.
  • Akın, A., Gediksiz, E., Arslan, S., & Akın, Ü. (2012, June). The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Education Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESSA). Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on New Horizons in Education, Prague, Czech Republic. Abstract retrieved from
  • Anderson, D., & Walker, R. (1991). The effects of metacognitive training on the approaches to learning and academic achievement of beginning teacher education students. Paper presented at the Australian Teacher Education Association, Melbourne.
  • Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Sorenson, C. K. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th ed.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
  • Balkıs, M., Duru, E., Buluş, M., & Duru, S. (2006). An investigation of the academic procrastination among university students in related to various variables. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 7(2), 57-73.
  • Blank, L. M. (2000). A metacognitive learning cyde: A better warranty for student understanding? Science Education, 84, 486-506. doi: 10.1002/1098-237X(200007).
  • Brown, C. J. (1983). The joys of Fs: A student guide for getting lousy grades. Teaching of Psychology, 10, 176-177. doi: 10.1207/s15328023top1003_19.
  • Brownlow, S., & Reasinger, R. D. (2000). Putting off until tomorrow what is better done today: Academic procrastination as a function of motivation toward college work. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 15-34.
  • Burka, J. B., & Yuen, L. M. (1990). Procrastination: Why do you do it, what to do about it (2nd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
  • Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: a theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65(2), 245-282. doi: 10.3102/00346543065003245.
  • Buys, N. J., & Winefield, A. H. (1982). Learned helplessness in high school students following experience of
  • noncontingent rewards. Journal of Research in Personality, 16(1), 118-127. doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(82)90045-9.
  • Çakıcı, D. Ç. (2003). An examination of the general procrastination behavior and academic procrastination behavior in high-school and university students . Unpublished Master Thesis, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Çam, Z. (2013). Big five personality traits as a predictor of general and academic procrastination behaviors among adolescents. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 2(2), 89-96.
  • Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(2), 270-295. doi: 10.1006/ceps.2001.1094.
  • Chissom, B., & Iran-Nejad, A. (1992). Development of an instrument to assess learning strategies. Psychological Reports, 71, 1001-1002. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1992.71.3.1001
  • Çikrıkci, Ö. (2012). The predictive strength of metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy beliefs on life satisfaction among gifted students. Unpublished Master Thesis. Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.
  • Clark, E. L., & Rieker, P. P. (1986). Differences in relationships and stress of medical and law students. Journal of Medical Education, 61, 32-40.
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th ed.). New York: Routledge Falmer.
  • Coutinho, S. A. (2007). The relationship between goals, metacognition, and academic success. Educate, 7(1), 39-47.
  • Day, V., Mensink, D., & O'Sullivan, M. (2000). Patterns of academic procrastination. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 30, 120-134.
  • Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: A Signet Book.
  • Felsten, G., & Wilcox, K. (1992). Influences of stress, situation-spedfic mastery beliefs and satisfaction with sodal support on well-being and academic performance. Psychological Reports, 70,219-303. doi.10.2466/pr0.1992.70.1.291.
  • Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Procrastinators and perfect behavior: An exploratory factor analysis of self-presentation, self- awareness, and self-handicapping components. Journal of Research in Personality, 26, 75-84. doi: 10.101670092- 6566(92)90060-H.
  • Ferrari, J. R., & Beck, B. (1998). Affective responses before and after fraudulent excuses by academic procrastinators. Education, 118 (4), 529-537.
  • Ferrari, J. R., Johnson, J. L., & McCown, W. G. (1995). Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Field, A. (2013). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS (4nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
  • Fletcher, T. D., Major, D. A., & Davis, D. D. (2008). The interactive relationship of competitive dimate and trait competitiveness with workplace attitudes, stress, and performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(7), 899-922. doi: 10.1002/job.503.
  • Flett, G. L., Blankstein, K. R., & Martin, T. R. (1995). Procrastination, negative selfevaluation, and stress in depression and anxiety: A review and preliminary model. In J. R. Ferrari, J. L. Johnson, & W. G. McCown (Eds.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 137-167). New York: Plenum Press.
  • Grecco, P. R. (1984). A cognitive-behavioral assessment of problematic academic procrastination: development of a procrastination self- statement inventory. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology - Fresno.
  • Güler, D., & Çakır, G. (2013). Examining predictors of test anxiety levels among 12th grade high school student. Turkish Psychological Counselling and Guindance Journal, 4(39), 82-94.
  • Harriott, J., & Ferrari, J. R. (1996). Prevalence of procrastination among samples of adults. Psychological Reports, 78, 611-616. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1996.78.2.611.
  • Hartman, H. J. (1998). Metacognition in teaching and learning: An introduction. Instructional Science, 26, 1-3.
  • Haycock, L. A. (1993). The cognitive mediation of procrastination: an investigation of the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy beliefs. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Minnesota.
  • Haycock, L. A., McCarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 317-324. DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1998.tb02548.x
  • Hess, B., Sherman, M. F., & Goodman, M. (2000). Eveningness predicts academic procrastination: The mediating role of neurotidsm. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15(5), 61-74.
  • Huan, V. S., See, Y. L., Ang, R. P., & Har, C. W. (2008). The impact of adolescent concerns on their academic stress. Educational Review, 60, 169-178. doi:10.1080/00131910801934045.
  • Hung, C. L. (2011). Coping Strategies of Primary School Teachers In Taiwan Experiencing Stress Because of Teacher Surplus, Social Behavior and Personality, 39, 1161-1174.
  • Johnson, J. L., & Bloom, A. M. (1995). An analysis of the contribution of the five factors of personality to variance in academic procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(1), 127-133. doi: 10.1016/0191- 8869(94)00109-6.
  • Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Landine, J., & Stewart, J. (1998). Relationship between metacognition, motivation, locus of control, self-efficacy and academic achievement. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 32(3), 200-212.
  • Lay, C. H. (1986). At least my research on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 474-495. doi: 10.1016/0092-6566(86)90127-3.
  • Lazarus, R. S. (2006). Stress and emotion: A new Synthesis. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
  • Lee, E. (2005). The relationship of motivation and flow experience to academic procrastination in university students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 166(1), 5-15. DOI: 10.3200/GNTP.166.1.5-15
  • McCown, W., Petzel, T., & Rupert, P. (1987). An experimental study of some hypothesized behaviors and personality variables of college student procrastinators. Personality and Individual Differences, 8(6), 781-786. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(87)90130-9
  • McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S. (2006). Research in education: Evidence-based inquiry (6th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.
  • Milgram, N., Marshevsky, S., & Sadeh, C. (1995). Correlates of academic procrastination: Discomfort, task aversiveness, and task capability. The Journal of Psychology,        129(2),      145-155. DOI: 10.1080/00223980.1995.9914954
  • Milgram, N., Mey-Tal, G., & Levison, Y. (1998). Procrastination, generalized or specific, in college students and their parents. Personality and Individual Differences, 25 (2), 297-316. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00044-0
  • Misra, R., & Castillo, L. G. (2004). Academic stress among college students: Comparison of American and International Students. International Journal of Stress Management, 11(2), 132-148. doi: 10.1037/1072­5245.11.2.132.
  • Odacı, H. (2011). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination as predictors of problematic internet use in university students. Computers & Education, 57, 1109-1113. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.005.
  • Odacı, H., & Çikrıkci, Ö. (2012). University students' ways of coping with stress, life satisfaction, and subjective well-being. The Online Journal of Counseling and Education, 1(3), 117-130.
  • Öngen, D. E. (2006). The relationships between self-criticism, submissive behavior and depression among
  • Turkish adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 793-800. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.03.013
  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2000) Academic procrastinators and perfectionistic tendendes among graduate students. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. 15 (5), 103-110.
  • Owens, A. M., & Newbegin, I. (1997). Procrastination in high school achievement: A casual structural model. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(4), 869-887.
  • Piccarelli, R. (2003). How to overcome procrastination. The American Salesman, 48(5), 27-29.
  • Rabin, L. A., Fogel, J., & Nutter-Upham, K. E. (2011). Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-reported executive function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 344-357. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2010.518597.
  • Ramsay, J. R. (2002). A cognitive therapy approach for treating chronic procrastination and avoidance: Behavioral activation interventions. Journal of Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama, & Sociometry, 55(2), 79-92.
  • Rice, K. G., Neimeyer, G. J., & Taylor, J. M. (2011). Efficacy of coherence therapy in the treatment of procrastination and perfectionism. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 2(2), 126-136. doi: 10.1177/2150137811417975.
  • Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J., & Murakabi, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), 387-394. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.33.4.387.
  • Saddler, C. D., & Sacks, L. A. (1993). Multidimensional perfectionism and academic procrsatination: Relationships with depression in university student. Psychological Reports, 73, 863-871. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1993.73.3.863.
  • Schouwenburg, H. C., Lay, C., Pychyl, T. A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2004). Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings. Washington: American Psychological Association.
  • Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science,                26(1-2), 113-125. doi: 10.1023/A:1003044231033
  • Schraw, G. (2009). A conceptual analysis of five measures of metacognitive monitoring. Metacognition Learning, 4(1), 33-45. doi: 10.1007/s11409-008-9031-3
  • Schraw, G., & Graham, T. (1997). Helping gifted students develop metacognitive awareness. Roeper Review, 20(1), 4-8. doi: 10.1080/02783199709553842
  • Schraw, G., & Sperling-Dennison, R. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(4), 460-475. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1994.1033.
  • Schraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007). Doing the things we do: A grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 12-25. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.99.1.12.
  • Schubert, W., Lilly, J., & Stewart, D. W. (2000). Overcoming the powerlessness of procrastination. Guidance and Counseling, 16(1), 39-43.
  • Senecal , C., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. Journal of Social Psychology, 135(5), 607-619. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1995.9712234
  • Senecal, C., Vallerand, R. J., & Guay, F. (2001). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: toward a motivational model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 176-186. doi: 10.1177/0146167201272004.
  • Sharma, M., & Kaur, G.(2011). Gender differences in procrastination and academic stress among adolescents. Indian Journal of Social Science Researches, 8(1-2), 122-127.
  • Sigall, H., Kruglanski, A., & Fyock, J. (2000). Wishful thinking and procrastination. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 283-296.
  • Sirois, F. M. (2007). 'Tll look after my health later": A replication and extension of the procrastination-health model with community-dwelling adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), 15-26. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.003.
  • Sirois, F. M., Melia-Gordon, M. L., & Pychyl, T. A. (2003). 'Tll look after my health later": An investigation of procrastination and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(5), 1167- 1184. doi: 10.1016/S0191- 8869(02)00326-4.
  • Sloboda, J. A. (1990). Combating examination stress among university students: Action research in an instutional context. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 18, 124-136. doi: 10.1080/03069889008253567.
  • Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 503-509. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.31.4.503.
  • Stead, R., Shanahan, M. J., & Neufeld, R. W. J. (2010). Tll go to therapy, eventually": Procrastination, stress, and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 175-180. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.028.
  • Struthers, C. W., Perry, R. P., & Menec, V. H. (2000). An examination of the relationship among academic stress, coping, motivation, and performance in college. Research in Higher Education, 41(5), 581-592. doi: 10.1023/A:1007094931292.
  • Suldo, S. M., Shaunessy, E., & Hardesty, R. (2008). Relationships among stress, coping, and mental health in high- achieving high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 45(4), 273-290. doi: 10.1002/pits.20300.
  • Sun, J., Dunne, M. P., Hou, X., & Xu, A. (2011). Educational stress scale for adolescents: Development, validity, and reliability with Chinese students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(6), 534-546. doi: 10.1177/0734282910394976.
  • Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8(6), 454-458.
  • Tolor, A., & Murphy, V. M. (1985). Stress and depression in high school students. Psychological Reports, 57, 535­541. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1985.57.2.535.
  • Tyrrell, J. (1992). Sources of stress among psychology undergraduates. Irish Journal of Psychology, 13, 184-192. doi: 10.1080/03033910.1992.10557878.
  • Uzun-Özer, B. (2009). Academic procrastination in group of high school students: Frequency, possible reasons and role of hope. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(32), 12-19.
  • Uzun Özer, B., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Reducing academic procrastination through a group treatment program: A pilot study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. doi: 10.1007/s10942-013-0165- 0.
  • Uzun Özer, B., Demir, A., Ferrari, J. R. (2009). Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: Possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 241-257, DOI: 10.3200/SOCP.149.2.241-257
  • Wellman, H. M. (1990). The child's theory of mind. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Wesley, J. C. (1994). Effect of ability, high school achievement, and procrastinatory behavior on college performance. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54(2), 404-408. doi: 10.1177/0013164494054002014.
  • Wolters, C.A. (2003). Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of
  • Educational Psychology, 95(1), 179-187. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.179.
  • Yıldırım, I., & Ergene, T. (2003). Sodal support, submissive acts, and test anxiety as predictors of academic achievement among high school students. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 25, 224-234.
  • Zimmerman, B. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep2501_2.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 82­91. doi: 10.1006/cpes.1999.1016.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 82­91. doi: 10.1006/cpes.1999.1016.